simple food chains

What is an ecosystemScales of an ecosystemLevels of organisation of an ecosystem
What is a biome
What is a food chainTrophic levels of an ecosystem
The Carbon Cycle
The nitrogen cycle
Important ecosystem terminology


Aquatic Ecosystems
Earth System
Food Waste
Genetic Engineering
Ocean Acidification
Ozone Depletion

Water Scarcity
ecology space

The Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is also key in the existence of ecosystems and food chains. Nitrogen forms about 78% of the air on earth. But plants do not use nitrogen directly from the air. This is because nitrogen itself is unreactive, and cannot be used by green plants to make protein. Nitrogen gas therefore, needs to be converted into nitrate compound in the soil by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil, root nodules or lightning.

To understand the cycle better, let us consider the diagram below:

nitrogen cycle

nitrogen cycle examples1. Nitrogen is introduced into the soil by precipitation (rain, lightning).

nitrogen cycle examples2. Nitrates don’t only come from Nitrogen in the air. They can also be obtained by the conversion of ammonia, commonly used in fertilizers by nitrifying bacteria in the soil. Some root nodules can also convert nitrogen in the soil into nitrates.

nitrogen cycle examples3. Plants build up proteins using nitrates absorbed from the soil.

nitrogen cycle examples4. When animals like cows, eat these plants, they, in turn, use it to build animal protein.

nitrogen cycle examples5-6. When these animals (cows) poop, pee or die, the urea, excreta or carcass are broken down by decomposers and the nitrogen is re-introduced into the soil in the form of ammonia.

nitrogen cycle examples
7. Nitrates in the soil can also be broken down by denitrifying bacteria (in specific conditions) and sent into the air as nitrogen. This process can help make the soil infertile because it will lack the nitrates needed for plant use.

Once nitrogen gets back into the air, the cycle continues.

previous pageMore on ecosystem

ecology space