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Physical and chemical changeDefine matterWhat are solidsWhat are liquidsWhat is a gaschange of state in matterThe bahaviour of matterPhysical change in matterChemical change in matter.html

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Behaviour of Matter


The particles in solids, liquids and gases all behave in different ways but result in a similar way. They all expand when heated up.

characteristics of solids
Solids:
The particles in solids vibrate more and knock against each other when heated and result in taking up more space. The property of solids (metal) expansion makes it possible to join two metal pieces without welding.

See diagram below:
expansion in solids

characteristics of solids
Liquids:
Particles in liquids move around each other some more, vibrate quickly and also result in taking up more space.

characteristics of solids
Gases:
The particles in gases move freely in all directions and take up more room too. When heated, they move very quickly and move about more.

All three states result in taking up more room, also know as expansion. The expansion properties of solids, liquids and gases have some advantages and disadvantages.

Here is a few:
One advantage of expanding metal is its use in thermometers. The mercury (liquid-metal) in the tube expands when they get hotter.

One disadvantage of expansion is that roads crack during the cold season because they contract and expand during the hot summer. This expansion can make road surfaces rough. Metal and steel structures used in bridges also expand when they heat up, causing fractures in the bridge.

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