Earthquakes and Tsunamis... Did you know?
Scientists can locate the epicenter of an earthquake by studying the different speeds of seismic waves.
In modern architecture and engineering, buildings can be constructed to be earthquake-proof. They are built to sway and stand after the waves run through the earth’s surface. This is particularly useful in areas know to be earthquake-prone. Even if they fall, there will be less damage to life and property.
The world’s earliest recorded earthquake occurred on January 23, 1556, in Shaanxi, Central China. It had a magnitude of 8.0, and an estimated 830 people were killed. Many people there lived in caves dug into soft rock and these collapsed during the earthquake.
Himalaya-Karakoram is believed to have been created y the movement of Tectonic plates. This land mountain range is the greatest in the world. It has 96 of the world’s 109 peaks of over 7,317m (24,000 ft approx), with the longest range in the Andes of South America, which is 7,564km (4700 mi) in length.
The largest recorded earthquake in the world was a magnitude 9.5 (Mw) in Chile on May 22, 1960.
The East African Rift System is a 31-37 miles wide zone of active volcanoes and faulting that extends north-south in eastern Africa for more than 3000 km (1864 miles) from Ethiopia in the north to the Zambezi in the south. It is a rare example of an active continental rift zone, where a continental plate is attempting to split into two plates which are moving away from one another. earthquake.usgs.gov
Faults were first recognized as the source of earthquakes in 1855. Before that, the first “pendulum seismoscope” was developed in 1751 to measure the shaking of the ground during an earthquake.
A tsunami and a tidal wave are two different things. A tidal wave is caused by the earth’s movement and interactions between the sun and the moon. It is usually very shallow water and very mild. A tsunami is a sea wave caused by an underwater earthquake or landslide. It is usually triggered by an earthquake and results in displacing the ocean water, throwing it ashore and into the land.