The Forest Biome

Forests make up about 30% of the total land cover on Earth and are of incredible value to life on Earth. They are a store of carbon and play a very important role in climate control. They have a watershed role and are a source of many raw materials that humans depend on. It is believed that forests have the most biodiversity. A small portion of the Rainforests, for example, is home to millions of insects, birds, animals, and plants. 

Three main biomes make up the Forest Biome. These are the Tropical Rainforest, Temperate, and Boreal Forests (also called the Taiga). Temperatures of forest biomes (especially the tropical rainforest) are generally high all year though, but a lot cooler at the surface. This is because there is very little sunlight reaching the forest floors as a result of the heavy vegetative cover.

Humidity is extremely high with lots of rainfall, exceeding 200cm all year though.

Soils are loose and very airy, with high acidity and decaying organic matter.

Plant types of Tropical Rainforests are usually huge trees with buttress roots, lots of large green leaves, and shallow roots. Ferns and palms are also common. Plants in the Temperate forests are less dense with a bit of sunlight reaching the floors. Tree types include the willow, basswood, and elm. Plants of the Boreal are mostly conifers with needle-like leaves. There is very little understory and lots of light on the floors. Trees like fir and spruce are common.

Small mammals, birds, insects, and bats are common in tropical rainforests, as they either can fly up for sunlight or do not need sunlight. However, all the forest biomes have lots of skunks, deer, squirrels, foxes, birds, and reptiles.

An example of the Tropical Rainforest is The Amazon. Other examples are the Scandinavian forest (boreal) and those in the North East of America.