The Tundra Biome

It is known to be the coldest of all the terrestrial (land) biomes, with the least bio-diversity capacity. Tundra got its name from Tunturia, a Finnish word that means Barren land. This biome has very little rain with freezing temperatures and covers about a fifth of the earth’s land surface.

There are two major tundra biomes: The Arctic Tundra and the Alpine Tundra. The Arctic Tundra is located around the north pole in the northern hemisphere. This biome has temperatures of about 2-3 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer and about -35 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter. Bogs and ponds are common as a result of constantly frozen surface moisture and melting permafrost.

Plants in the Arctic Tundra are short and grow closer to each other.

Examples include mosses, heaths, and lichen. They are adapted to perform photosynthesis even in the freezing conditions. Animals here include herbivores like hares and squirrels. Carnivores include polar bears and arctic foxes. It also has lots of birds, insects, and fish like cod and salmon.

The Alpine Tundra is very cold, located on top of high mountains, often with very few trees and little vegetative cover. They are icy for a larger part of the year. Animals in this biome include some birds, mountains goats, and marmots. There are also beetles and butterflies.

Click Here to see an example of a Tundra Food Chain